Mapping LLMs to Human Knowledge Discovery
Using a process where each step involves generating a single symbol as answer to the current question
The process of knowledge discovery, as explained here can be modeled as a sequence of questions and answers ("0"s and "1"s. This is similar to how Large Language Models (LLMs) function. In response to an input prompt, LLMs generate symbols in a step-by-step process, where each step represents the generation of a single symbol. This symbol can be viewed as an answer to the current question posed by the input Conceptually, this process forms a sequence where each 'question' (or "0") is followed by its 'answer' (or "1"). Each symbol generated by the LLM is a sequential response, creating a chain of interrelated steps within the overall knowledge discovery process.
Large Language Models (LLMs) are a form of artificial intelligence that are trained on vast amounts of text data to generate language.
LLMs use a combination of neural networks and probabilistic methods to generate language. They work by predicting the next word in a given text based on the preceding context, and updating their internal representation of the context with each prediction. The internal representation of the context is known as the hidden state and is used by the model to determine the probability of each possible next word in the sequence.
LLMs have seen significant advancements in recent years, especially with the rise of deep learning techniques. One of the most prominent examples of LLMs is the GPT (Generative Pre-trained Transformer) family of models, developed by OpenAI. Recent advancements in LLMs have led to models that can perform a wide range of tasks, such as text generation, language translation, text classification, and question answering. The models have also become much larger, with GPT, for example, having over 175 billion parameters. This has led to a significant improvement in the models' ability to generate high-quality language, as well as in their ability to perform a wider range of tasks.
How Large Language Models work?
In the context of large language models (LLMs) such as GPT, the "context" refers to the sequence of symbols (e.g. words or characters) that the model has seen so far as input. This context acts as the basis for the model's prediction of the next symbol in the sequence.
The context is updated at each step of the generation process, as the model adds the most recently generated symbol to the context before predicting the next symbol. This allows the model to take into account the information from the previously generated symbols when making its next prediction.
The size of the context used by the model can vary, but typically includes the most recent k symbols in the sequence, where k is a hyperparameter of the model. This value can be adjusted based on the specific task and desired output length. By updating the context in this manner, the model is able to capture longer-term dependencies between symbols in the sequence and generate more coherent output.
Predicting the next symbol
The process of generating symbols one by one in response to an input prompt can be seen as a sequence of questions and answers, where each step involves answering a question about what the next symbol should be. Each answer is a symbol generated by the model and each question is a prediction about the next symbol. The prediction is based on the probabilities assigned by the model for each possible symbol in the vocabulary given the current context, and the symbol with the highest probability is selected as the answer to the current question and is added to the generated sequence.
Here's a high-level overview of the process, with example prompt of "Show me the the longest word in the English language featuring only alternating consonants and vowels":
- Input prompt processing: The model processes the input prompt to understand the requirements of the task, which is to generate the longest word in the English language featuring only alternating consonants and vowels.
- Initial context creation: The model creates an initial context, a hidden representation that summarizes the information contained in the prompt. This context can include information about the task requirements, knowledge about the English language, and any other relevant information. The hidden representation can be thought of as the model's current knowledge or understanding of the input prompt, and it is influenced by the prior knowledge of the model as well as the sequence of symbols generated so far.
- First symbol prediction: The model uses the initial context to make a prediction about the first symbol in the word. In this case, the first symbol would be either a consonant or a vowel.
- First symbol generation: The model generates the first symbol based on the probabilities assigned by the model for each possible symbol. This symbol becomes the answer to the question of what the first symbol in the word should be.
- Context update: The model updates the context with the first symbol to create a new context for the next prediction.
- Second symbol prediction: The model uses the updated context to make a prediction about the second symbol in the word. In this case, the second symbol would be the opposite of the first symbol (i.e., a vowel if the first symbol was a consonant, or a consonant if the first symbol was a vowel).
- Second symbol generation: The model generates the second symbol based on the probabilities assigned by the model for each possible symbol. This symbol becomes the answer to the question of what the second symbol in the word should be.
- Context update: The model updates the context with the second symbol to create a new context for the next prediction.
- Repeat steps 6-8: The model repeats steps 6-8 for each subsequent symbol in the word, updating the context and generating a symbol for each question until a stopping criterion is met, such as a maximum length for the generated sequence or the model's prediction of an end-of-sequence token.
- Word generation: The model generates the final word, which consists of the series of symbols generated in response to the questions posed by the model at each step. The word generated by the model will be "Honorificabilitudinitatibus," the longest word in the English language featuring only alternating consonants and vowels. “Honorificabilitudinitatibus”means “the state of being able to achieve honours” and is mentioned by Costard in Act V, Scene I of William Shakespeare's “Love's Labour's Lost”.
In this sense, the questions and answers form a sequence where each question precedes its answer. The sequence of questions and answers can be seen as a continuous process of updating the context and making predictions, resulting in a coherent and well-formed sequence of symbols that satisfies the requirements specified in the input prompt.
A sequence of "0"s and "1"s
The sequence of questions and answers can be thought of as a series of "0"s and "1"s. Each "0" in the sequence represents a question posed to the model, and each "1" represents the generated symbol that acts as an answer to that question. This analogy provides a simple way to understand how the model works, as it predicts symbols one-by-one to build up a sequence.
This process of generating symbols one-by-one, updating the hidden representation, and continuing until a stopping criterion is met, is at the heart of how large language models like GPT generate language. By understanding this sequence of "0"s and "1"s, it is possible to gain insights into the workings of these models and how they process context to produce language.
It is not possible to determine the exact sequence of "0"s and "1"s that would result from the large language model's process of generating the longest word in the English language featuring only alternating consonants and vowels. The sequence would depend on the specific implementation and architecture of the model, as well as the input prompt and any additional constraints or conditions provided. However, in general, the sequence would involve a series of "0"s representing the questions posed to the model and "1"s representing the generated symbols that act as answers to those questions. The exact number of "0"s and "1"s and their ordering would be determined by the model's internal workings and the information it has been trained on.
This explanation is a simplified way of understanding the basic process of the model generating symbols one by one in response to an input prompt, which can be framed as a series of questions and answers.
We can easily map this analogy of how LLMs work to the way knowledge discovery works with humans. Knowledge discovery, as explained here can be modeled as a sequence of questions and answers ("0"s and "1"s).
Length of the sequence of "0"s and "1"s
The length of the sequence of questions and answers ("0"s and "1"s) generated by an LLM model is influenced by several factors, including the complexity of the input prompt, the capacity of the model, and the specific configuration and training of the model, the temperature setting used during sampling, the number of symbols generated before a stopping criterion is met, or the constraints placed on the output during the generation process.
There may be multiple sub-sequences of "0"s and "1"s within the overall sequence generated by a large language model. The division into sub-sequences may depend on the specific architecture and implementation of the model, as well as the input prompt and any additional constraints or conditions provided.
For example, in the case of generating source code, the overall sequence may be divided into sub-sequences corresponding to individual statements, expressions, or blocks of code. In the case of generating text, the overall sequence may be divided into sub-sequences corresponding to individual sentences, paragraphs, or sections of the text.
The precise nature of these sub-sequences and their division into smaller units is highly dependent on the specific task and the desired structure of the output. In some cases, the sub-sequences may be further divided into even smaller units, such as words or characters, depending on the desired level of granularity in the output.
Appendix - The architecture of Large Language Models
Overview of the Transformer architecture
Large Language Models (LLMs) are based on deep neural networks and operate on the principles of machine learning. The Transformer architecture is one of the most popular architectures used in LLMs. This architecture was introduced by Vaswani et al. in 2017 and has been widely used in various NLP tasks. The key feature of this architecture is its ability to process parallel sequences of inputs, making it well suited for processing sequential data such as language.
The Transformer architecture consists of several key components including multi-head self-attention, feed-forward layers, layer normalization, and positional encoding. The self-attention mechanism allows the model to capture relationships between different elements in the input sequence. This mechanism is used to compute the attention weights for each element in the sequence, allowing the model to focus on the most relevant information for making a prediction.
The feed-forward layers of the Transformer architecture are used to map the input representation to a higher-dimensional space, where the model can better capture the relationships between elements in the sequence. The layer normalization layer is used to ensure the stability of the model and prevent overfitting, while the positional encoding layer is used to capture the order of elements in the sequence.
In summary, the Transformer architecture is a powerful tool for LLMs and has been widely adopted in various NLP tasks. It is well suited for processing sequential data and has proven to be effective in capturing relationships between elements in the input sequence, making it an important component of many LLMs.
Understanding of the hidden representation
In the context of large language models (LLMs), the hidden representation refers to the internal representation of the model's current understanding or knowledge of the input prompt. The hidden representation is generated based on the input prompt and the previous hidden representation, and is used by the model to make predictions about the next symbol in the sequence.
The hidden representation can be thought of as the model's current knowledge or a compressed summary of all the information the model has seen so far, which is updated with each generated symbol. This allows the model to make predictions based on the context created by previous symbols in the sequence, which can help improve its overall accuracy and coherence in generating the final output.
One of the key aspects of the Transformer architecture, which is commonly used for LLMs, is its ability to process context in parallel. This allows the model to maintain a dynamic representation of the input prompt and update its hidden representation accordingly.
It is important to note that the hidden representation is not a straightforward representation of the input prompt, but rather a learned representation that has been optimized for the task of language generation. The hidden representation is updated and refined through the training process, where the model is trained on a large corpus of text.
Overview of the context-aware approach
The context-aware approach refers to the method in which Large Language Models (LLMs) use previous information or context to generate new information. This approach is similar to the way the human brain processes and generates language by taking into account the context and prior knowledge. The context-aware approach is a key aspect of LLMs, as it enables the models to understand the context of a given prompt and generate coherent and relevant answers.
LLMs use an encoder-decoder architecture to process context and generate new information. The encoder processes the input prompt and creates a hidden representation or context vector, which acts as a summary of the input. This hidden representation is then used by the decoder to generate the output, which is a continuation of the input prompt based on the context vector.
One of the main advantages of the context-aware approach is that it enables LLMs to generate more accurate and relevant outputs compared to models that only use the input prompt and not the context. Additionally, the context-aware approach enables LLMs to generate outputs that are more coherent and consistent, as the models have a better understanding of the input prompt and the relationships between different parts of the input.
In conclusion, the context-aware approach is a crucial aspect of LLMs and is essential for generating high-quality outputs. The approach allows LLMs to understand the context of a given input and generate outputs that are coherent, relevant, and consistent with the input prompt.
Explanation of how the hidden representation changes with each generated symbol
In an LLM, the hidden representation is updated with each generated symbol in order to create a new context for the next prediction. The hidden representation is a vector that summarizes the context of the input prompt and is used by the model to make predictions about the next symbol in the sequence. The hidden representation is updated with each symbol generated by the model, and this updated context is used to make predictions about the next symbol in the sequence.
The change in the hidden representation with each generated symbol is influenced by the attention mechanism in the model, which decides which parts of the input prompt are most important for generating the next symbol. The attention mechanism allows the model to focus on different parts of the input prompt as it generates symbols, which allows it to maintain a flexible understanding of the context.
In this way, the hidden representation can be thought of as the model's current understanding of the input prompt, and its updates with each symbol generated reflect the model's evolving understanding of the context. The ability to dynamically update the hidden representation with each generated symbol is what makes LLMs so powerful and flexible in their ability to generate natural language text.
Discussion of the stopping criteria
The stopping criteria is a critical aspect of the sequence generation process in large language models (LLMs). The process of generating symbols in response to an input prompt involves the generation of a series of interrelated steps, where each step involves the generation of a single symbol. The sequence continues until a stopping criterion is met, which determines when the sequence should end.
There are several different stopping criteria that can be used in LLMs, including:
- Length-based stopping criteria, where the sequence ends after a specified number of symbols have been generated.
- Confidence-based stopping criteria, where the sequence ends when the model's confidence in its predictions falls below a certain threshold.
- Task-based stopping criteria, where the sequence ends when the model has successfully completed a specific task.
It is important to carefully choose the stopping criteria, as the choice can greatly impact the quality and effectiveness of the generated sequence. Length-based stopping criteria may not always be appropriate, as the length of the sequence may not accurately reflect the quality of the generated content. Confidence-based stopping criteria may lead to early termination of the sequence when the model is still making accurate predictions, and task-based stopping criteria may limit the model's potential to generate a wide range of content.
In conclusion, the stopping criteria is a critical aspect of the LLMs, and the choice of stopping criteria can greatly impact the quality and effectiveness of the generated sequence. The choice of stopping criteria should be carefully considered based on the specific requirements of the task at hand.
Mapping of LLMs to the human brain when answering questions
While the operation of LLMs is rooted in advanced mathematical and computational concepts, it is possible to understand their workings in terms of more familiar biological processes.
One such comparison that has been made is between LLMs and the human brain. The human brain is known to process language and answer questions in a remarkable way, and researchers have proposed that LLMs operate in a similar manner. This has led to the development of a theoretical framework for mapping the workings of LLMs to the human brain when answering questions.
The hidden representation of the LLM can be thought of as its current knowledge or understanding of the input prompt. Similarly, the human brain maintains a current mental state that is shaped by prior experiences and is updated as new information is processed. In both cases, the current state is used to inform the generation of a response.
The "prior knowledge" of the LLM refers to the information the model has already learned during its pre-training phase. This pre-training is done on a massive corpus of text data to develop the initial representations of language patterns and relationships between words, phrases, and sentences. These learned representations form the prior knowledge of the model and serve as the starting point for the model's understanding of any new input prompt it encounters.
The process of answering questions in the human brain is thought to involve the activation of specific neural circuits in response to stimuli. These circuits form the basis of the mental state and influence the generation of a response. In a similar manner, the LLM updates its hidden representation with the generated symbol to create the new context for the next prediction, and the process repeats for each subsequent symbol in the sequence.
The comparison between LLMs and the human brain in the context of answering questions is an area of ongoing research, and more work needs to be done to further develop and refine this mapping.
1. Vaswani et al, (2017), Attention Is All You Need, https://doi.org/10.48550/arXiv.1706.03762
2. Radford, Alec; Narasimhan, Karthik; Salimans, Tim; Sutskever, Ilya (June 11, 2018). Improving Language Understanding with Unsupervised Learning https://openai.com/blog/language-unsupervised/